Evidence That Listening to a Recording Could Accelerate the Learning Process for New Repertoire

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Let’s say you have a few short pieces that need to be learned before rehearsal tomorrow, and only a few hours today to practice. How would you approach this task?

Would you just dive right in and spend all of your practice time reading through the parts and working out the details?

Or would you hop on YouTube first, and spend a little bit of time listening to some recordings before doing any work on your instrument?

In my early Suzuki years, it was always the latter. I did a ton of listening – upon awakening, during meals, in the car, and even as I was falling asleep every night. I remember well the little Sony stereo set on my dresser that my mom would turn on and leave running as she left the room after tucking me in.

I’m not sure if it’s because of all the listening I did, but I did seem to move through repertoire pretty quickly as a little kid (except for the seeming eternity I spent on LaFolia ).

And even into my grad school days, listening to recordings was always a key part of my learning process when beginning work on a new piece. Whether it was a concerto or piano trio, I always sought out recordings before taking a look at the score or trying to play through it on my violin.

My wife on the other hand (a pianist), was always a look-at-the-score-first kind of person, and didn’t like listening to recordings until after she had already gotten the piece into her fingers. However, a few years ago, when faced with a lot of rep to learn for a performance she had to do on short notice, I suggested that she put recordings of every piece on her phone and spend her 16-hr plane ride immersed in an endlessly repeating playlist.

She’s a quick learner, and probably would have been just fine even without humoring my suggestion, but the marathon listening session certainly didn’t hurt, and I like to think that it helped her get everything into her fingers more quickly upon arrival.

A bit like being able to see what a 10,000-piece puzzle is supposed to look like before trying to put the pieces together.

So this leads to an interesting question about the impact of listening on our learning. Is this just an old Suzuki habit that I never let go of? Or does listening to music in the early going actually accelerate the learning process?

12 minutes. 13 notes.

To see what effect an auditory “model” might have on musicians’ learning rates, a team of researchers (Cash et al., 2014) recruited 32 instrumental music majors1 with some secondary piano training2 to learn a short passage either (a) after listening to a recording or (b) without listening to a recording.

All students were allowed one 12-minute training session sometime between 8-10pm, in which they practiced the following 13-note melody with their left hand (all participants were righties).

From Cash, C.D., Allen, S.E., Simmons, A.L., & Duke, R.A. "Effects Of Model Performances On Music Skill Acquisition And Overnight Memory Consolidation." Journal Of Research In Music Education 62.1 (2014): 89-99.
From Cash, C.D., Allen, S.E., Simmons, A.L., & Duke, R.A. (2014). Effects Of Model Performances On Music Skill Acquisition And Overnight Memory Consolidation. Journal Of Research In Music Education, 62(1), 89-99.

Everyone was instructed to “play the melody as quickly, accurately, and evenly as possible,” but those in the listening group were also presented with a recording of the passage, which they heard 10 times before doing any practicing.

12 hours later…

Approximately 12 hours later, after a night of sleep, they returned to the lab to see how much of the previous evening’s practice stuck.

So how did the groups do?

Well, both groups improved with practice, in that everyone performed the passage more accurately after 12 minutes of practice than they did on their first try (no surprise there). In addition, both performed more accurately the following morning than they did at the end of their practice session. Yes, you read that correctly – they continued to improve overnight despite no further practice. Which might sound a little surprising at first, but was actually something the researchers expected to find, as continued motor learning after a period of sleep is a phenomenon that has been observed in other studies.

Different rates of learning

Though both groups improved during the practice session, they did not improve at the same rate. The students who heard the recording started out with an average accuracy score of 52.18 and over the course of the practice session improved to an average score of 99.96 (a 92% improvement). The group which was not given a recording to listen to started out at about the same level of accuracy – 48.71 – but only improved to an average score of 84.16 (a gain of only 73%).

Different levels of performance

Not only did the groups differ in terms of the rapidity of their learning, but the two groups ultimately achieved different levels of performance too. To see what sort of difference in memory consolidation there might be overnight, the researchers asked the participants to come back for another test the next day after a night’s sleep.

The group which heard the recording, despite not practicing any further, ended with an average final accuracy score of 108.75 at the next morning’s test (an improvement of 9% over the previous evening’s performance). The no-listening group improved a wee bit too, but only by 4%, finishing with a final accuracy score of 87.24.


At first glance, the results of the study seem pretty clear – but it’s hard to say from the results what’s “best” in the long term. In the short term, yes, it seems that having an auditory model can accelerate our progress and help us get to a higher level of performance quicker. But does this lock us into a particular way of playing a piece too soon? And make it more difficult to develop our own interpretation of a piece? Or is this more of a concern for advanced players than it is for beginners?

It might be that the optimal approach depends on how much time is available, and also one’s personal preferences. If you’d like to ponder this further, it’s a topic that came up in the podcast episode with cellist Natasha Brofsky and violist Roger Tapping (here). And it came up in conversation with cellist Mark Kosower too (here), who also noted the importance of listening to multiple recordings, instead of just one.


Cash, C. D., Allen, S. E., Simmons, A. L., & Duke, R. A. (2014). Effects of Model Performances on Music Skill Acquisition and Overnight Memory Consolidation. Journal of Research in Music Education, 62(1), 89–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022429413520409


  1. All participants were string or woodwind players.
  2. No more than a few years of private instruction/group piano class total.

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34 Responses

  1. I find that playing by ear is the most effective way to go. Therefore, I’m inclined to say hearing it before you play it is the best way to go, but the problem is that people don’t always know what that takes. It takes a special kind of listening to simply relax and allow the right sounds to come out of you without having to command your body so much. I would be interested in the results of such a study done again, this time on beginners (especially those starting from zero).

  2. I totally agree that our performance continue to improve overnight even without keep practising. Sometimes, when I learn a piece on piano, I may get stuck at certain passage, and the improvements is limited even if I kept on practising. So, I would stop for a day or two, and resume that same piece, I would often find myself gotten better on the piece! It’s very surprising! I guess the key is not to over do it.

  3. It strikes me as not an especially fair experiment in the score study vs listening comparison, if the non-listening group didn’t get to actually see the score before their practice session. As Alex points out above, trailing this study on absolute beginners would also be interesting, however I’d also be interested in seeing if it has any impact on learning to read music notation as well. Lots of interesting directions this kind of research can take…

  4. I always like to have a go at a new piece first without actively listening to a recording. But I do find that listening to other recordings helpful and, for me, really does speed up the learning process. I try to listen to as many different performances as I can (isn’t YouTube great!) whilst following the score. I think this prevents getting stuck into a single interpretation and is a good way of developing an initial understanding of the work and how different artists approach it.
    Incidentally another thing I have been trying recently when learning (and memorising) a new piece is to teach it. When I teach a piece I see it in a different way – more analytical. I recognise structure, themes, harmonies etc. with much more clarity. It does need to be well practised and in ones fingers first of course!

  5. I am a teacher with Suzuki training, but am mostly teaching in a public high school these days. However, I do have a few private students. One family makes no effort to listen to the recording at all. In spite of the student’s excellent ear and great feel for the violin, it has been a long uphill struggle to get her to book 2. Imagine everyone’s surprise when she learned an entire book of Christmas carols the week after Thanksgiving last year. She knew what to expect when she played them. It was a huge breakthrough for her, and I hope that her parents will now finally follow through and have her listen every day.

  6. I wish ther had been a third group. This group would have sung the melody through before approaching their instrument. I wonder what effect this would have on the learning process.

    And I would enjoy trying this with 8 year old beginners.

  7. I agree with Richard about the multiple recordings part, freeing you from one interpretation. I also listen to multiple recordings of a piece (if available) when I am in the learning phase, but then I usually stop listening to other recordings once I start developing my own interpretation of the piece, so as not to play exactly like my favorite recording.

  8. I have found that myself and my students who use score study and listening to a variety of recordings in a variety of ways; listening for enjoyment of the music, for deep awareness of what is going on besides my part, for nuance of musical inflection, details of HOW an artist is making the music come to life etc… is necessary and very helpful to learning and a great performance…
    Thank you as alway Noa for providing the information and inspiration …. Jennifer

  9. I’m a professional harpist. For solo work, I always learn the piece first before I listen to any recordings because I don’t want someone else’s artistic interpretation to influence mine before I have a good idea of how I want the piece to sound. Orchestral parts are a completely different story. I will often read through the part to identify what I think are the potential trouble spots, then listen to several different recordings to see how my part will be fitting in to the whole and to check tempi. That includes, for a harpist, figuring out if the part will even be heard. Many complicated harp parts are completely overpowered by the orchestra and it’s reasonable to simplify.

  10. With only 32 participants, looking at individual data
    may or may not be helpful. In such a small group, averages may be misleading.

  11. At one point in my life I was a voice student and listened to a lot of vocal repertoire. I often chose things to learn from “falling in love” with a particular performance and listened to it many times for a few weeks and then not at all for a couple of months. After this time, I was always surprised at how different my own performance of the piece had become from the original recording that had inspired me.

  12. I’m not usually one to listen to something without a few hacks at it on my horn first, but one time I got a phone call at 4pm that there was a flute masters recital at 7pm that night, and the clarinetist for the duo that was programmed had food poisoning. It was a piece I’d never played before, but I agreed to do it. I managed to get two run-throughs, and then during the first half of the recital, I went to the basement, looked at the difficult parts, and then just looked up a recording on YouTube so I could really hear, without having to worry about fingers, notes, and whatnot, how my part was supposed to fit in with the flute and the piano. It made a drastic difference when it came time for the performance! I’ve since made listening a more integral part of my learning process. In my recent audition prep, I had to take two weeks off for travel, so I made a playlist and put it on loop for my 11-hr flights, and even though I had no access to my clarinet for two weeks, when I came back to it, I found that I had still made progress. Sure, in an ideal world, we would all be able to hear the music before we play it, but especially for young wind players who don’t really start studying music until middle school and don’t have the aural background of Suzuki players, recordings are a great way to help students understand the piece without having to worry about all the other technical aspects. As an advanced student, listening to a variety of recordings can help you find your voice by determining what you do and don’t like in certain interpretations, and listening to a variety of world-class musicians can give you so many ideas about the music that isn’t written on the page. I don’t know of a great performer who isn’t also a great listener.

  13. I like Ellen Johansen’s suggestion to test a group who sings before playing. I’d like to test a group that learns without written notation, never using the page as a visual cue. This is a test of differences in learning speed, accuracy and recall, but if musicality and expression could be quantified the advantages of making learning music an aural experience rather than a visually driven one would be even more obvious.

  14. From the study: “Our data demonstrate that hearing a model performance that is performed at a speed beyond what may be attained in a single practice session led experienced musicians to accomplish more during active practice and to benefit more from overnight memory consolidation than did musicians who did not hear a model.”

    Study also stated that the musicians tested, highly skilled on their instruments, seemed to favor accuracy over speed, settling into tempi that were below half note=138 , the tempo of the aural model.

    Wondering if this has implications for learning passages of a piece that are too fast. Rather than simply attacking the tricky, fast passage without a previous listen, perhaps it’s helpful to listen to that passage a number of times?

    1. Hi John,

      Yeah, I thought this was interesting too. As the researchers point out, we do tend to emphasize accuracy over speed, so without an audio reference of what the tempo “ought” to be (or at least could be), we probably would tend to play/practice and aim for a tempo on the slower side, leading to a slower tempo than we might actually be capable of.

  15. I realize this study used a digital piano, but, in general, if a study uses an acoustic, traditional piano to conduct an experiment, draw conclusions and generalize to other instruments, is there an inherent problem because the piano, unlike most other instruments, cannot easily be moved while playing? I remember reading that Ray Charles had said the piano was easier for him to learn than other instruments because it did not move, so he always had a steady reference point for his hand movements. How critical is lack of movement of the instrument itself?

  16. I play oboe in a number of orchestras in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Very recently, one of my orchestras was doing O Patrio Mia from Aida (which has a number of long, very exposed solos) as part of a one-off, one-rehearsal concert. I have to admit that I opened my folder for this much later than I should have, and I was on the road a lot at the time and had very little time to prepare. I got a fantastic recording of the aria, put it on a USB key, and listened to it a number of times in the car. I got to the gig, having (gulp) not physically practiced the music once, but because I had a great concept in my head I played everything really well, and had a lot of people come to me afterwards to say how much they enjoyed what I was doing with it. This is not my only experience with the power of this – I am most definitely sold!

  17. I am a piano teacher and I generally shy away from having them listen first. I have a lot of beginners, and I worry it would take away from their reading abilities. I won’t even play it for them before they’ve had a chance to figure out the rhythms themselves. I’d be curious about your thoughts on that.

    1. Hi Rebecca,

      That sounds like a good idea to me. I think it all depends on what exactly we’re trying to help our students learn at the moment. If we want them to get the notes into their fingers quicker, then listening may be the way to go. But if we’re trying to get them to figure out how to interpret the black dots on the page for themselves and learn how to read and audiate without a model (which I think I personally struggled with, given how reliant I became on my ear), then having them read first before listening sounds more valuable.

  18. I think there’s too much variation here to reach a conclusive conclusion, and too few people. There’s learning styles to consider as well, which will lead people to have their preferences.
    Something I have found for my own pieces – as both a pianist and violinist – is that when I learn something new that I rely more on the score for piano and more on my ear for violin as a comparison of the two; I definitely look for recordings sooner for the violin than the piano, although I listen broadly in general. So the instrument itself, for me, has always played a part.
    If it’s a matter of learning something quickly, anything that can help is an asset and the first thing I would do is grab the sheet music and look for a performance that I like/similar to how I would want to perform the piece and listen to it with the sheets. Singing it too, as others suggested, was the first thing I did when I saw the example above.
    Sorry that this got longer than I had hoped, but I wanted to add my 2 cents.

  19. Thank you for asking what I think. Practicing the violin everyday isn’t something that I did everyday as a teenager so I have no experience to speak. Auditory model is cool. Auditory model is easy to find.
    Asking questions is something that I currently do. If you listen to recording and ask critical questions, can you little by little break free of auditory models ? Do you listen to the entire performance ? Can I combine the two ? Begin with sight-reading and checking out auditory model for specific sections ? I DON’T KNOW!!!
    I had read a musician who listened to two recordings, the one of Yo-yo and the one of the cellist woman, and he didn’t do like the two, he decided did something in the middle.

    My comment isn’t that of a daily practicer!!!
    You write articles and I read them. I comment and you read my comment. That being said, I don’t like the way I am overconfident leaving a comment of the sort. Maybe I ask questions as an overconfident person. I don’t like my comment. I don’t like the way I speak about something I don’t know. I don’t like the way I pretentiously ask questions. Practicing the musical instrument isn’t something I did everyday!!!

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