Let’s say you have to learn a few short pieces in the next 24 hours, and have 4 hours to practice. How would you approach this task? Would you just dive right in and spend all 4 hours reading through the parts and working out the details? Or would you hop on YouTube and spend 30-60 minutes listening to some recordings first before doing any work on your instrument?

As a young Suzuki kid, it was always the latter. I did a ton of listening – upon awakening, during meals, in the car, and even as I was falling asleep every night. I remember well the little Sony stereo set on my dresser that my mom would turn on and leave running as she left the room after tucking me in.

I’m not sure if it’s because of all the listening I did, but I did seem to move through repertoire pretty quickly as a little kid (except for the seeming eternity I spent on LaFolia ).

Even into my grad school days, listening to recordings was always a key part of my learning process when beginning work on a new piece. Whether it was a concerto or piano trio, I always sought out recordings before taking a look at the score or trying to play through it on my violin.

My wife on the other hand (a pianist), was always a look-at-the-score-first kind of person, and didn’t like listening to recordings until after she had already gotten the piece into her fingers. However, a few months ago, when faced with a lot of rep to learn for a performance she had to do on short notice, I suggested that she put recordings of every piece on her phone and spend her 16-hr plane ride immersed in an endlessly repeating playlist.

She’s a quick learner, and probably would have been just fine even without humoring my suggestion, but the marathon listening session certainly didn’t hurt, and I like to think that it helped her get everything into her fingers more quickly upon arrival.

A bit like being able to see what a 10,000-piece puzzle is supposed to look like before trying to put the pieces together.

So this leads to an interesting question about the impact of listening on our learning. Is this just an old Suzuki habit that I never let go of? Or does listening to music in the early going accelerate the learning process?

12 minutes. 13 notes.

To see what effect an auditory “model” might have on musicians’ learning rates, a team of researchers recruited 32 instrumental music majors1 with some secondary piano training2 to learn a short passage either (a) after listening to a recording or (b) without listening to a recording.

All students were allowed one 12-minute training session sometime between 8-10pm, in which they practiced the following 13-note melody with their left hand (all participants were righties).

From Cash, C.D., Allen, S.E., Simmons, A.L., & Duke, R.A. "Effects Of Model Performances On Music Skill Acquisition And Overnight Memory Consolidation." Journal Of Research In Music Education 62.1 (2014): 89-99.
From Cash, C.D., Allen, S.E., Simmons, A.L., & Duke, R.A. (2014). Effects Of Model Performances On Music Skill Acquisition And Overnight Memory Consolidation. Journal Of Research In Music Education, 62(1), 89-99.

Everyone was instructed to “play the melody as quickly, accurately, and evenly as possible,” but those in the listening group were also presented with a recording of the passage, which they heard 10 times before doing any practicing.

12 hours later…

Approximately 12 hours later, after a night of sleep, they returned to the lab to see how much of the previous evening’s practice stuck.

So how did the groups do?

Well, both groups improved with practice, in that everyone performed the passage more accurately after 12 minutes of practice than they did on their first try (no surprise there). In addition, both performed more accurately the following morning than they did at the end of their practice session. Yes, you read that correctly – they continued to improve overnight despite no further practice. Which might sound a little surprising at first, but was actually something the researchers expected to find, as continued motor learning after a period of sleep is a phenomenon that has been observed in other studies.

Different rates of learning

Though both groups improved during the practice session, they did not improve at the same rate. The students who heard the recording started out with an average accuracy score of 52.18 and over the course of the practice session improved to an average score of 99.96 (a 92% improvement). The group which was not given a recording to listen to started out at about the same level of accuracy – 48.71 – but only improved to an average score of 84.16 (a gain of only 73%).

Different levels of performance

Not only did the groups differ in terms of the rapidity of their learning, but the two groups achieved different levels of performance too. The group which heard the recording continued to improve overnight (again, despite not practicing any further), and ended with an average final accuracy score of 108.75 at the next morning’s test (an improvement of 9% over the previous evening’s performance). The no-listening group improved a wee bit too, but only by 4%, finishing with a final accuracy score of 87.24.

What do you think?

At first glance, the results of the study seem pretty clear, but it’s hard to say from the results what’s best in the long term. In the short term, yes, it seems that having an auditory model can accelerate our progress in the early going and help us get to a higher level of performance quicker. But does this lock us into a particular way of playing a piece too soon? And make it more difficult to develop our own interpretation of a piece? Or is this more of a concern for advanced players than it is for beginners?

What have you found in your own learning or teaching? Do you find it useful to listen to recordings before looking at the score? Or find it more valuable in the long run to start from the score with no auditory model?


  1. All participants were string or woodwind players.
  2. No more than a few years of private instruction/group piano class total.

About Noa Kageyama, Ph.D.

Performance psychologist and Juilliard alumnus & faculty member Noa Kageyama teaches musicians how to beat performance anxiety and play their best under pressure through live classes, coachings, and an online home-study course. Based in NYC, he is married to a terrific pianist, has two hilarious kids, and is a wee bit obsessed with technology and all things Apple.

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