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You’ve undoubtedly heard musicians, athletes, teachers, coaches, and psychologists all extol the virtues of mental imagery. How it can not only enhance your learning, but improve performance, help build self-confidence, regulate your emotional state, and more.

But you’ve probably also heard that for imagery to be effective, you must be able to generate vivid, clear images (or sounds or kinesthetic sensations).

So…what are we to do if we can’t create a clear image, sound, or physical movement? What if the only thing we can conjure up is a fuzzy, vague, fleeting image? What if all we can see and hear are missed shifts and cracked notes?

Should we scrap the idea of imagery altogether? Or just keep at it in the hopes that one day something will finally click?

Imagery ability varies

Researchers have known for some time that imaging ability is a skill that varies from individual to individual. Much like any physical skill, whether it be running, jumping, or sniping a baddie with your precision gaming mouse, some folks find visualization pretty natural, while others find it to be a real challenge.

Yet, there hasn’t been a ton of research devoted to finding ways to get better at it. For the most part, the idea has been that if you do more imagery, you’ll eventually get better at it.

But that doesn’t feel like especially helpful advice, no?

It’s like if I went to my teacher, expressed my frustration at not being able to play fingered octaves in tune, and their advice was to practice. That if I did more fingered octaves, I would eventually get better at fingered octaves.

Which I suppose is perfectly valid advice in the most general sense, but isn’t nearly as helpful as being given a specific strategy for improvement1.

What makes up an image?

Part of what makes imagery challenging, is that real life is a pretty rich and complex experience. So in order to make each image clear and vivid, there are quite a lot of elements we need to be able to add to the movie in our head.

Here are the three main areas:

  1. One category is comprised of all the external elements of the situation, like the architecture of the room, acoustics, and the itchy tag on your shirt that you meant to cut off, but forgot (“stimulus propositions”).
  2. Then there’s our internal experience, including muscle tension, increased heart rate, and our cold, clammy, zombie hands (“response propositions”).
  3. And finally, our interpretation of it all, as in whether we see the situation as a challenge or a threat, or whether we’re feeling anxious or energized (“meaning propositions”).

A team of British researchers developed an imagery training technique called layered stimulus response training (LSRT), that is built on the principle of developing imagery ability in layers, one tiny step at a time, instead of trying to create a vivid scene all at once. Somewhat like the process of building a house, from pouring the foundation to framing to interior decoration, adding more detail and refinement with each new stage.

Three steps of LSRT

Step 1: Image

The first step is to generate an image. Something like, playing through the first movement of a concerto in studio class2. It’s best if the image is something that comes from past experience, as this will make it easier to imagine the details.

An important part of this step is describing as much of the scene as you can in words. Because if you can’t describe what you see in your head, it’s probably a sign that the image is not clear and vivid enough.

Then you would let the imagery play out until the scene ends at some logical point. Like the end of your studio class performance, or the last note of the scale.

Step 2: Reflect

Then, you would rate the image you just created (1=“no image at all, only thinking of the scenario” and 5=“a perfectly clear and vivid image”), and reflect on the quality and completeness of the image. Did you see just the visual elements of the location? Or did your image also incorporate how your hands felt? How clearly did you hear the sound of your instrument?

The idea is to break the image down, and identify which parts were vivid and which parts were unclear. This way you have some idea what to add to the image in your next attempt.

Step 3: Development

After reflecting on your imagery attempt, you can either re-image the same exact thing, focusing on the elements that were the most vivid and easiest to imagine clearly. Or, you could try to develop the image, by adding another layer of detail on top. It could be another aspect of the space, like adding a stand or different lighting to your image. Or it might be a change in perspective (going from a 3rd person perspective to a 1st person perspective). Or the addition of vibrato to your sound. Or how your fingers feel during a tricky shift.

If this process seems vaguely familiar, it may be because it resembles the formula for deliberate practice. Where you try something, reflect on how it went, and plan small adjustments or improvements for your next attempt.

But does this really work?

The team responsible for developing LSRT took 24 participants with little to no golf putting experience, and who were also assessed to be low in imagery ability, and put them through a 4-day visualization program.

One group completed a visual imagery session each day, where they were asked to “imagine seeing the golf ball run along the green and gently roll into the hole” five times.

Another group engaged in a daily motor imagery session, where they were asked to “imagine yourself correctly and successfully performing the golf putting task” five times.

And the third group was trained in the 3-step LSRT process, and asked to “imagine yourself correctly and successfully performing the golf putting task” five times, utilizing the reflective and additive layering process.

Two big changes

After 4 days of practicing golf putts in their heads, only the LSRT group improved their ability to mentally “feel” the shot.

And perhaps more intriguingly, only the LSRT group improved their putting performance.

Which suggests, that imagery ability can be improved with the right kind of practice. And two, that it can be improved enough to produce results of practical significance.
Williams, S. E., Cooley, S. J., & Cumming, J. (2013). Layered stimulus response training improves motor imagery ability and movement execution. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35, 60-71.

Take action

If you’ve struggled with visualization in the past, this is as good a week as any to give LSRT a try. Here’s a quick summary of how this might look:

1. Visualize a passage.
2. Reflect, evaluate, and rate the vividness from 1-5 (i.e. Which parts were easiest to imagine? Most clear and vivid?).
3. Repeat the image, aiming to make the clearest, easiest to imagine elements even more vivid.
4. Reflect and evaluate the image once again.
5. Repeat 4 more times, each time taking the vividness of the image up a level, or adding an additional layer of detail to the image. Something like how effortless and light your fingers feel (response proposition), or the feeling of confidence before executing a tricky shift (meaning proposition). Don’t worry too much about what the “right thing” to add to the image may be. Just add whatever detail you feel would make the image more realistic.


  1. Like the fingered octave technique Franco Gulli once suggested, which is to experiment with varying the ratio of sound you produce with the upper and lower note. Playing each note equally loudly would be a 50/50 ratio, playing the lower note louder and only barely playing the top note would be a 90/10 ratio, and fingering both notes but only playing the lower note would be a 100/0 ratio. The idea is to start at 100/0, and progressively move in the direction of 50/50, but stop when you get to the point where you hear just enough of a little shimmer from the top note to make it sound like an octave. Spoiler alert: it’s going to be something much closer to 90/10 than 50/50, which is the key to making them infinitely easier to play in tune.
  2. Though it needn’t be nearly this complex; it could even be something as simple as playing a scale in your practice room.