8 Things Top Practicers Do Differently

As my kids were (begrudgingly) practicing their Tae Kwon Do patterns the other night, I caught myself telling my oldest that he had to do his pattern five times before returning to his video game.

My goal, of course, was not for him to go through the motions of his pattern five times like a pouty zombie, but to do it one time with good form and authority. But the parent in me finds it very reassuring to know that a certain number of repetitions or time has gone into something. Beyond the (erroneous) assumption that this will automagically solidify his skills somehow, it feels like a path to greater discipline, and a way to instill within my kids some sort of work ethic that will serve them well in the future.

Some degree of time and repetition is necessary to develop and hone our skills, of course. But we also know on some intuitive level that to maximize gains, we ought to practice “smarter, not harder.”

But what the heck does that really mean anyway? What exactly do top practicers do differently?

Pianists learning Shostakovich

A group of researchers led by Robert Duke of The University of Texas at Austin conducted a study several years ago to see if they could tease out the specific practice behaviors that distinguish the best players and most effective learners.

Seventeen piano and piano pedagogy majors agreed to learn a 3-measure passage from Shostakovich's Piano Concerto No. 1 . The passage had some tricky elements, making it too difficult to sight read well, but not so challenging that it couldn’t be learned in a single practice session.

The setup

The students were given two minutes to warm up, and then provided with the 3-measure excerpt, a metronome, and a pencil.

Participants were allowed to practice as long as they wanted, and were free to leave whenever they felt they were finished. Practice time varied quite a bit, ranging from 8 1/2 minutes to just under 57 minutes.

To ensure that the next day’s test would be fair, they were specifically told that they may NOT practice this passage, even from memory, in the next 24 hours.

24 hours later…

When participants returned the following day for their test, they were given 2 minutes to warm up, and then asked to perform the complete 3-measure passage in its entirety without stopping, 15 times (with pauses between attempts, of course).

Each of the pianists’ performances were then evaluated on two levels. Getting the right notes with the right rhythm was the primary criteria, but the researchers also ranked each of the pianists’ performances from best to worst, based on tone, character, and expressiveness.

That led to a few interesting findings:

  1. Practicing longer didn’t lead to higher rankings.
  2. Getting in more repetitions had no impact on their ranking either.
  3. The number of times they played it correctly in practice also had no bearing on their ranking.

What did matter was:

  1. How many times they played it incorrectly. The more times they played it incorrectly, the worse their ranking tended to be.
  2. The percentage of correct practice trials did seem to matter. The greater the proportion of correct trials in their practice session, the higher their ranking tended to be.

The top 8 strategies

Three pianists’ performances stood out from the rest, and were described as having “more consistently even tone, greater rhythmic precision, greater musical character (purposeful dynamic and rhythmic inflection), and a more fluid execution.”

Upon taking a closer look at the practice session videos, the researchers identified 8 distinct practice strategies that were common to the top pianists, but occurred less frequently in the practice sessions of the others:

  1. Playing was hands-together early in practice.
  2. Practice was with inflection early on; the initial conceptualization of the music was with inflection.
  3. Practice was thoughtful, as evidenced by silent pauses while looking at the music, singing/humming, making notes on the page, or expressing verbal “ah-ha”s.
  4. Errors were preempted by stopping in anticipation of mistakes.
  5. Errors were addressed immediately when they appeared.
  6. The precise location and source of each error was identified accurately, rehearsed, and corrected.
  7. Tempo of individual performance trials was varied systematically; logically understandable changes in tempo occurred between trials (e.g. slowed things down to get tricky sections correct).
  8. Target passages were repeated until the error was corrected and the passage was stabilized, as evidenced by the error’s absence in subsequent trials.

The top 3 strategies

Of the eight strategies above, there were three that were used by all three top pianists, but rarely utilized by the others. In fact, only two other pianists (ranked #4 and #6) used more than one:

6. The precise location and source of each error was identified accurately, rehearsed, and corrected.

7. Tempo of individual performance trials was varied systematically; logically understandable changes in tempo occurred between trials (e.g. slowed things down to get tricky sections correct; or speeded things up to test themselves, but not too much).

8. Target passages were repeated until the error was corrected and the passage was stabilized, as evidenced by the error’s absence in subsequent trials.

What’s the common thread that ties these together?

The researchers note that the most striking difference between the top three pianists and the rest, was how they handled mistakes. It’s not that the top pianists made fewer mistakes in the beginning and simply had an easier time learning the passage.

The top pianists made mistakes too, but they managed to correct their errors in such a way that helped them avoid making the same mistakes over and over, leading to a higher proportion of correct trials overall.

And one to rule them all

The top performers utilized a variety of error-correction methods, such as playing with one hand alone, or playing just part of the excerpt, but there was one strategy that seemed to be the most impactful.

Slowing things down.

After making a mistake, the top performers would play the passage again, but slow down or hesitate – without stopping – right before the place where they made a mistake the previous time.

This seemed to allow them to play the challenging section more accurately, and presumably coordinate the correct motor movements at a tempo they could handle, rather than continuing to make mistakes and failing to identify the precise nature of the mistake, the underlying technical problem, and what they ought to do differently in the next trial.

And if this sounds vaguely familiar, you might recall that a basketball study found something very similar in the practice habits of top free throw shooters…

Take action

What is your number one takeaway? How might you integrate these findings not just in your own practicing, but in the practice habits of your students?

Want a printable copy? Save this article as a PDF.

Download a PDF version to read later or share with a colleague or student.


Duke, R. A., Simmons, A. L., & Cash, C. D. (2009). It’s Not How Much; It’s How. Journal of Research in Music Education, 56(4), 310–321. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022429408328851

Ack! After Countless Hours of Practice...
Why Are Performances Still So Hit or Miss?

For most of my life, I assumed that I wasn’t practicing enough. And that eventually, with time and performance experience, the nerves would just go away.

But in the same way that “practice, practice, practice” wasn’t the answer, “perform, perform, perform” wasn’t the answer either. In fact, simply performing more, without the tools to facilitate more positive performance experiences, just led to more negative performance experiences!

Eventually, I discovered that elite athletes are successful in shrinking this gap between practice and performance, because their training looks fundamentally different. In that it includes specialized mental and physical practice strategies that are oriented around the retrieval of skills under pressure.

It was a very different approach to practice, that not only made performing a more positive experience, but practicing a more enjoyable experience too (which I certainly didn’t expect!).

If you’ve been wanting to perform more consistently and get more out of your daily practice, I’d love to share these research-based skills and strategies that can help you beat nerves and play more like yourself when it counts.

Click below to learn more about Beyond Practicing, and start enjoying more satisfying practice days that also transfer to the stage.


79 Responses

  1. This article might be the best practice advice I’ve come across! As a pre-college private studio teacher, I have a number of students whose parents haven’t studied music formally and don’t know how to oversee their children’s practice. This piece is succinct and accessible to a layperson, and also caused me to rethink what I tell students at lessons. Thanks for an outstanding resource!

  2. Thank you very much for this article Dr. Kageyama! Coming from a computing background, this definitely confirms my hunch of the similarity of studying computer science with music. It seems the two fields, distant as they may seem do have a number of similarities.

    1. The similarities between coding and practicing anything are strikingly similar. But then again we are essentially biological computers, and practice is like debugging and compiling code for a search engine that uses machine learning. The more organized and modular your algorithm and error checking are, the more efficient and productive the practice session will be. Also, our software is so complex that it is never fully free of bugs.

  3. Wow, I’ve been using these techniques for years with ensembles & individuals. A caution, targeted practice, like any good thing, has to be used in moderation.

  4. Thanks so much for this. It is very helpful and a good one. My teacher and I regularly discuss your posts. Thanks for all!

  5. Great artilce . These towo bits fascinate me.

    From the intersting findings list:
    -The number of times they played it correctly in practice also had no bearing on their ranking.

    From the what did matter list:
    -How many times they played it incorrectly. The more times they played it incorrectly, the worse their ranking tended to be.

    These seem to contradict each other .The number of times played correctly in practice had no bearing on the ranking, but the number of times they played it incorrectly did ? If they constantly played it correctly they are not playing it incorrectly. By not playing it incorrectly they are then not reducing their ranking (i.e their ranking holds at leats at a specific rank). Although the correct playing may not be increasing their ranking is it not still keeping their ranking from falling though ? Which in turn is effecting their ranking ?

    1. Hi Ko,

      Good question. There’s a nice chart on p.316 of the study that breaks down how the pianists each fared. Overall, there was just no consistent trend between the raw number of times a pianist played the excerpt correctly and their ranking. For instance, one of the lowest-ranked pianists played the passage correctly 63 times – more than any of the top 3 pianists. I think that’s why the relative prevalence of correct trials seemed to matter. The greater the ratio of correct trials to incorrect trials, the better the ranking tended to be.

      Regarding the number of times the pianists played the passage incorrectly, there were some individual differences of course, but overall, the top eight ranked pianists had much fewer incorrect trials (mean=3) than the bottom nine (mean=13.56).

      1. Great information, but I didn’t quite understand the first two strategies. Specifically, can you explain what you mean by “hands-together early” in the first tip, and what you mean by inflection in the second tip?

        1. Hi Alex,

          Sure – hands-together, meaning instead of learning the left hand and right hand parts separately, and then putting them together, the participants started playing with both hands together sooner in the process.

          And by inflection, this would be things like phrasing, dynamics, articulation, color – all the musical details that were part of the music beyond the notes and rhythms.

    2. ko: The more times you play it wrong in practice, the more you are teaching yourself to play it wrong.

      Part of the learning in practice is the proper set of motions that have to occur when you are playing the passage correctly. Every reiteration of the wrong motions is linking the optical sensation of reading the passage to a now-incorrect motion of the fingers. When playing at full tempo, there’s no time to individually instruct every finger as to where to go when. Slowing down enough to not miss the motion – even so slow as to make it possible to deliberately move each finger correctly from one point to another – lets your fingers feel that proper motion from point A to point B. After that it’s a matter of speeding it up to tempo, now that you’ve taught your kinesthetic sense what playing it right feels like.

      1. thanks for the reply Joe. I alaways enjoy hearing others input in to the subject of learning. As a subject Learning is a fascinating one.

  6. There’s a pretty widely held belief that practising hands separately is a very useful and important strategy for pianists, but is there any neurological evidence for this? The best pianists in the study played hands together early on does this mean playing hands separately is not useful because something quite different goes on your brain when you play hands together? Or does it simply mean that if you have to play a piece hands separately it may be too hard for you?

    1. Interesting question.

      I think there’s a time and a place for simplifying things, whether it’s hands separate, or slowing things down, or playing without vibrato, etc. But if we start with hands apart, we might be creating more work for ourselves down the road – because once we put the two hands together, we may discover that our hands have to do slightly different things than what we had been practicing with hands separate, necessitating more work to incorporate the new adjustments.

      1. Very interesting about the hand together/separate comments. Would be nice to see a blog devoted to that since it is always in debate. I recently read a book by famous pedagogue Ruth Slenczynska and she said to start separate but quickly put together as soon as one can.

        I think how fast one goes hands together could also be depending on the score. I’ll be working soon on a Beethoven Sonata and I will try hands together at a snails pace but I still think Bach with 3 or more voices should start out separate until all voices are under the fingers .

  7. Fast Practice = Slow Progress
    Slow Practice = Fast Progress
    No Practice = No Progress

    In addition, I have found the following to be valuable:

    Mental Practice: If you are going to make a mistake, do it before you play it.

    Learn the rhythm (air bow, study, counting)

    Learn the notes (silent fingering, notice finger patterns or half steps, shifting)

    Learn the bow directions (air bowing)

    Put it all together in your mind or with your “air violin.”

    By the time you actually make a sound, it will be correct (as humanly possible). Mistakes that are made before they are audible do not “stick.”

    1. I agree about “air” piano. I had a student traveling to Europe for two weeks just as he was beginning a concerto. I insisted he take his music and air practice on the plane, working 2-4-8 measures at a time and memorize. He rolled his eyes. Upon returning he barreled into the Studio grinning ear to ear, ” air piano works!” He had his concerto down and knew his way around the score because he had internalized it without hearing mistakes. I was very proud of this 17yr old! I love my job!?

      1. Thank you for this post! I just Googled “air practice piano” and found a good article that shed some insight on me. I’m looking forward to applying some of the concepts to my practice. I believe air practice helps ties in with deliberate practice, as implied in the article I found.

    1. Yes. I believe this is an effective way to approach sight reading. Obviously, the more experienced you are, the faster you can go through the process.

  8. I am very happy to see the value of pausing just before tricky passage to check ‘in balance’.
    “Hesitate without stopping”

    Reading this article reminds me to add for student coaching is the value of timed pauses in working larger sections — ie, in a passage of steady 16th, play one group, one beat rest, play next.

  9. Actually, the more I think about it, the more flawed I think this study is.
    There was no control for the ability of the pianists. A more proficient pianist would naturally put both hands together quickly, may even sight read the piece. And they would play with intonation, while a less able pianist, struggling with just the notes, would play hands separately without dynamics. I think the study just shows what good pianists, rather than what good practisers do. Or at best, shows nothing conclusive about what good practisers do.

  10. This is very thought provoking article on what makes for effective practice. The tips to slow down, stop before repeating errors, and respond thoughtfully to errors are all part of the Alexander Technique approach to learning. Rote practice and extended practice time don’t necessarily lead to improvement, and conversely may lead to practicing errors. That said, the sample size in this study is too small to draw any conclusions – so although the findings seem intuitively true, they may not be.

  11. Great article!

    I wonder though about what controls were used in the study concerning ability level. For instance, the reason better pianists often play a passage hands together at first is simply a higher level of playing. Ditto for needing less repetitions. If this cause and effect relationship was misunderstood, wouldn’t it easily make it seem as though the number of repetitions doesn’t matter?

    1. @Matt and Samantha,

      Very keen observation, and a good point. I imagine determining ability level would be quite a thorny task to undertake. For what it’s worth, time spent practicing and number of repetitions weren’t related to ranking, so it doesn’t seem that the top ranked pianists learned the passages any more quickly or easily than the others.

      While degree program is not a very reliable indicator of ability, that information is listed in a chart in the paper. It might be interesting to note that there were two BM students in the top 9, and five graduate students in the bottom 8; the two lowest ranked pianists were a DMA and MM student.

  12. What a great article! I have sent this to all my students and it is now circulating among our teaching faculty at my music school. Thank you! If possible to share on pinterest I have a page dedicated to practice tips for students and parents and would love to include this article.

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  14. Two interesting aspects for me, two related to each other. First, there is a fallacy in the presentation as regards the first part (the did/did not matter). As presented, the findings did not account for whether the players might already have had in their repertoire pieces with elements similar to the elements found in the Shostakovich. That would account greatly for the “What did matter”:

    “1 How many times they played it incorrectly. The more times they played it incorrectly, the worse their ranking tended to be.
    2 The percentage of correct practice trials did seem to matter. The greater the proportion of correct trials in their practice session, the higher their ranking tended to be.”

    In the second part, of the 6/7/8, it seems to me only #7 is relevant, because if you have #7 you naturally have ## 6 and 8, and if not #7, then most likely not ## 6 and 8

    If I may switch mediums for demonstration: The best dancers are body aware of the totality of the motions of the dance: they are not just “pointing their arm out”, they are putting their arm in a specific position, engaging the whole of the musculature of their arm in their performance of that position. To wit, they are “sticking” it, which takes conscious attention to every element of the motion. It is the same thing as with the best of any art form, as with the music: it is attention to the _whole_ of the medium, breaking it down, understanding not just the music but how the notes and elements integrate and how the _hands_ integrate with the music.

    As I would say it with writing, it is a depth awareness of the medium, not just attention to the surface effect of intended results (of “intended” meaning, as it were).

    Of course, it circles around: those people who work through #7 are more likely to recognize common element between pieces and more likely to be able to extend the learned memory of a known element into the learning of a new one.

  15. This is a really interesting article. The study reinforces the Montessori approach to general academic learning. Montessori teachers encourage a precise study and mastery of each concept before building complexity, a focus on mastery, individual pacing, opportunity for repetition until mastered, and quality over quantity. You could easily replace the piano passage learned in this study for any Montessori lesson.

  16. Thanks so much for sharing. I’ve been learning so much about how to practice deliberately, but it’s so easy to fall back into old patterns. I found this at the perfect time. I’ve been struggling with motivation to practice recently because I’m spending hours and hours and just getting frustrated with my progress. I was starting to worry about whether I’d be ready for my recital. This was a helpful reminder to approach my practicing differently. Thanks!

  17. This is absolutely the best article on practicing that I have ever read. Thanks for the post! The interesting question is why some students seem to intuitively understand this and why some do not. Or is it not a question of “understanding” but rather behavior? Whatever the case, this accounts for the real difference in outcomes and not the common myth that “talent” has anything to do with it. I guess the encouraging thing is that anyone can learn how to practice in this way. I’ve recently had success with an adult student who had largely plateaued for several years. This all relates to the idea of “Deep Practice” as put forth by K. Anders Ericsson and the reality of myelin production that Daniel Coyle discusses in his book The Talent Code. I look forward to learning more from your blog!

  18. Sometimes we all need the reassuring which specifically nods and points us on in the direction that we are already headed and this article does exactly that in an extremely fulfilling way. Thank you for this awesome blog and everything in it!

  19. These are great observations and recommendations. Another way of looking at this is “Don’t keep practicing mistakes!” The sooner we deal with poor technique, rhythm or other other errors, the easier it is to correct. To borrow from a former football coach, “Practice does NOT make perfect; only perfect practice makes perfect.”

  20. I am trying to make piano practice more efficient and created “Hanon in 60 seconds”. If anyone doing research in practice wants to try it – please write me at piano@avabiz.com. I am working in the field in general and have other ideas as well.

  21. I didn’t have time to read all of the comments, so if someone has already recommended the following book, I apologize:
    Improve Your Piano Playing
    by Dr. John Meffen

  22. #4 in the top 8 practice strategies says to stop before making an error while practicing led to better results. I tried this for two days and immediately stopped this trying this method. It scared the heck out of me. I was practicing stopping before I played an error. It was getting into my head that this was the right thing to do. What if I did this while performing? I don’t generally have any performance anxiety but I think this is a sure way to develop this problem. When learning a new passage my method is to play the notes out of time so I can find them. Then I put them to a metronome at a slow tempo and work up from there. If I play it wrong I don’t stop in the middle of the passage. I just plow through and make a note of it and get it right the next time. Great article though and a lot of good information. That particular method is just not right for me. And maybe others.

    1. Hi Scott,

      That’s an interesting reaction to that particular strategy – but it makes a lot of sense and I’m sure you’re not the only one to experience this. I think this is part of what makes practicing both an art and science (and endlessly interesting); that we are all individuals and can have many different responses to the same thing. Thanks for sharing your thoughts on this!

  23. You have confirmeD what I tell {nag} my students about – the need to slow down at a tricky spot until it is in your head. Then try speeding it up a little until it is correct and at speed.

  24. Hi Noa

    If you are still answering questions on this (great) post….do you have a link to the Free Throw study please? (Although I teach bass guitar and am very big on deliberate practice my kids are mad keen basketball and I’ve been trying to implement deliberate practice into THEIR practicing!).

    Cheers (from the UK)


  25. I wonder how many of these students had been taught how to practice the efficient methods used in the test by a teacher? The book Fundamentals of Piano Practice based on the teaching of a student of Satie emphasizes specific techniques for dealing with problems as they arise in practice and claims they produce excellent results. (The book was written by an impressed parent, not the pianist.) While some of the test subjects here may have been familiar with the work previously, it seems unlikely that the three who stood out from the rest of the group would all have studied it and none of the others, but it would have made sense for the testers to have checked. (If it was in the article, I missed it and apologize.)

    Instrument-learning apps now available provide a useful service here in identifying mistakes immediately, something a beginning student may not be capable of. This was pointed out in the flowkey ad that led me to this article a short while ago.

  26. Hello Dr. Kageyama,

    I discovered your blog when researching and collecting resources for my self-regulated inquiry project. For context, my distal goal is to learn a new song on the piano by November 20. I appreciate the numerous articles relating self-regulated learning to musical practice. 

    This article is pertinent to my most recent challenge experienced in my piano practice. The challenge I am experiencing is playing a specific excerpt both hands together. Although I have developed confidence in playing the entire piece with separate hands, I am struggling to get them accurately coordinated together and at tempo in this one part. What was most interesting to me is how playing hands together sooner in practice is listed as a one of the eight practice strategies. This notion is the opposite to what my piano teacher instructed me when I was younger. I still hear her telling me to “break it down”, “one hand at a time,” “slowly…even more slowly”. However, you also indicate that playing one hand alone is a common error-correction strategy. Instead of one strategy being more effective than the other, therefore, I question whether a possible mediator is skill-level. Perhaps playing hands together sooner is more effective for advanced pianists, whereas beginners require more of a chunked approach.

    Slow practice is a strategy my piano teacher also regularly emphasized, as I was eager to play a song at its tempo right away. I have integrated in my own practicing. During the forethought phase, I strategically planned slow practice as one of my techniques. In the performance phase I have observed my progress of slow and at tempo practice through audio and video recordings. Self-reflection allows me to observe and monitor the training of error-correction in my piano practice. I find self-reflection intersects and interrelates with all phases, since I engage in reflections and evaluations of each practice. By doing so, I have reinforced another benefit of slow practice. Slowing down or greatening the space between notes allows me to focus more on the process of learning, rather than the outcome or end goal. By progressing slowly to the next key or pausing in-between keys, I am able to think and prepare accuracy in melody and tempo. Specifically, it helps me focus on my hand configuration and movement across the keys. This increases my self-efficacy and motivation. Overall, this reflection — of not synching both hands — has lead to a more specific and tailored goal for my practice: slow practice both hands with a metronome. Another strategy I have implemented is saying each note aloud or humming/singing the song. 

    Thank you for your insight! 

  27. Thank you, Noa, for this excellent post. I found it via my harp teacher, Shelley Fairplay, who linked to and recommended it in her online course “The Flourishing Harpist” as support for one of her most common phrases of advice: “Slow means fast.” The top 8 strategies are alluring, and I have much work to continue with all of them. I’m enjoying the rabbit hole of your blog and enewsletter. Warm thanks for sharing your work and research!

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