The Peak-End Rule: A Simple Way to Make Practicing Feel Less like a Chore

One summer in graduate school, a couple friends talked me into doing the run portion of a triathlon with them.

I don’t remember much about the experience, other than wondering somewhere around the half-way point why I ever agreed to do such a thing and rueing the day I ever met them, but also, on a more positive note, that the last portion of the race was downhill, and there were a lot of folks at the end offering smiles and encouragement.

The first words I said to my friends at the finish line were “never again,” but oddly, later in the day, I agreed to do it again if they wanted.

Were my friends really just that persuasive? Was I high on endorphins?1 Or was there something else at play that might have made me more agreeable?

And what does this have to do with practicing anyway?

Our memory is not so reliable

“Remembered utility” is a term used to describe our evaluation of how pleasurable or painful a past experience was. And we tend to use this information to make decisions about what to do in the future. For instance, if we had a horrible experience on our first day of swimming lessons, we are probably going to be more inclined to avoid swimming lessons in the future.

The interesting thing, of course, is that our memory of such experiences is not 100% reliable and is vulnerable to a rather peculiar bias – sometimes called the “peak-end rule.”

The peak-end rule

The peak-end rule states that our evaluation of past experiences tend to be based on their most intense point (best or worst), and how they end. In a 1993 study, Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman and colleagues asked a group of people to stick their hands in uncomfortably cold water, but in two slightly different circumstances. In one condition they had to keep their hand submerged in 14°C (57.2°F) water for 60 seconds (which apparently, is not so fun). In another condition they were asked to stick their hand in 14°C (57.2°F) water for 60 seconds, plus an additional 30 seconds while the temperature was gradually raised to 15°C (59°F). As I understand it, 15°C still sucks, but is noticeably less painful than 14°C.

If our brains were totally rational, we’d choose the 60 seconds of pain rather than 60 seconds of pain + 30 more seconds of slightly reduced pain, right? But no! When given a choice of which trial to repeat, 69% of the participants chose to repeat the longer one – apparently perceiving that experience to be better overall, because of how the ending skewed their perspective.

The same phenomenon has been observed in other areas, from colonoscopies to waiting in line. So, a researcher at Washington University was curious to see if the peak-end rule might apply to studying challenging material (which for my kids, probably falls much nearer colonoscopies on the pain-pleasure continuum than waiting in line…).

Because if making the end of a study (or practice) session slightly less painful makes us more likely to put our noses back to the grindstone in the future, that would be pretty helpful to know.

Mental effort

44 undergraduate students were told that they were going to study and be tested on three lists of words. Meanwhile, the participants weren’t told that one of the lists was longer than the other, and that there was no third list (the reasons for which will become clearer in a moment).

Half of the participants studied and were tested on the short list first (30 extremely difficult Spanish-English translations), followed by the longer list (30 different, but similarly challenging Spanish-English translations plus an additional 15 moderately difficult words placed at the end). The other half studied/tested the long list first, and then the short list.

After participants studied and were tested on both tests, they were asked a series of questions designed to gauge their experience of the two tests. Such as, “For the third study list today, you can pick which type of list you would like to repeat. Would you rather study a list of new words that was more like List 1 or like List 2?” Or, “Which list was more difficult to learn?, “Which list do you think it took longer to learn?”, and “Which list was tougher for you to cope with?”.

Short list vs. long list

Participants performed better on the test for the short list, so in a perfectly rational world where test performance would predict one’s preferred study method, the short list ought to be the preferred list.

However, 73% of the participants preferred the longer list (this is the one which had as many challenging items to study as the short list, but ended with the additional 15 easier, but still challenging items). Most of the participants also rated the longer list as being less difficult (70%), and less tough to cope with (71%). Their sense of time was also distorted, with 70% of the participants thinking that the shorter list took them longer to learn.

In other words, a challenging study session that was longer, but ended with slightly easier material was preferable to a shorter study session with challenging material throughout.

Take action

Like eating our veggies before dessert, it seems that saving our easiest or funnest tasks for last may help us perceive our practice session as being less of a chore (and make it easier to get ourselves to practice again). It’s probably helpful, even in a rehearsal or performance, to end things on an up note (ha!) as well. And in a lesson, being sure to end things with an experience that feels encouraging, or easier, or fun, could help foster a more positive memory of the lesson – even if it was a very challenging one for the student.

And in case the peak-end rule relates to blog posts too, here is an article describing how watching cat videos might actually be a productivity booster, as well as one to get you started. And if you’re wondering what’s up with all the cats on the internet, here’s a fun video  about the cat video phenomenon.


  1. Just kidding – the endorphins  explanation for the “runner’s high” seems to be more myth than fact (another article here if you’re interested)

Ack! After Countless Hours of Practice...
Why Are Performances Still So Hit or Miss?

For most of my life, I assumed that it was because I wasn’t practicing enough. And that eventually, if I performed enough, the nerves would just go away and everything would take care of itself.

But in the same way that “practice, practice, practice” wasn’t the answer, “perform, perform, perform” wasn’t the answer either. In fact, simply performing more, without the tools to facilitate more positive performance experiences, just led to more negative performance experiences!

Eventually, I discovered that elite athletes are successful in shrinking this gap between practice and performance, because their training looks fundamentally different. In that it includes specialized mental and physical practice strategies that are oriented around the retrieval of skills under pressure.

It was a very different approach to practice, that not only made performing a more positive experience, but practicing a more enjoyable experience too (which I certainly didn’t expect!).

If you’ve been wanting to perform more consistently and get more out of your daily practice, I’d love to share these research-based skills and strategies that can help you beat nerves and play more like yourself when it counts.

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11 Responses

  1. I am a freelancer and recently started taking a few lessons between concert seasons. My lessons usually end with playing with my teacher’s cats! I would come back anyway because I’m learning so much, but the cats are an extra treat.

  2. Another great post, Noa!

    Seems like this study is saying that a less difficult experience at the end makes us more willing to tolerate difficulty. But I wonder if a pleasurable or fun experience at the end of something difficult would have the same effect, or even a more powerful effect?

    Also I am curious what the effect of humor/lightheartedness is on perception of difficulty or speed of learning. I try to include humor into my teaching because I feel it helps people relax their minds and bodies so that new material sinks in faster. Curious if there are any studies about this.

    Thanks again for a great post.

    Can’t resist posting a link to a cat video that was part of a piano lesson……. Claire, the cat in the video, does a lot to lighten the mood in my studio.

  3. When I was a kid, my favorite cereal was Lucky Charms. I would always skip the marshmallows until last, then eat them. Ending with the most enjoyable part was something that I perhaps stumbled upon and the article brought back this memory. I think of it as being rewarded for taking on the harder stuff. I think I’ll always work on the difficult parts first from now on.

  4. When my students finish their lessons, in the growing season, I take them out into my garden and we harvest vegetables for them to take home. They seem pretty eager to come back – for more vegetables!! lol

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