The Five-A Model: A Step-by-Step Process for Refining Technique

Have you ever found yourself at a fork in the road with your technique? A time when it feels like you’ve gone as far as you can go with your current approach, and that in order to go to the next level, you have to make a change of some kind?

Perhaps you’ve been playing well and advancing at auditions, but realized that in order be competitive in finals, you may have to make a significant adjustment to your embouchure.

Maybe an arm vibrato has served you well for many years, but has begun to feel limiting in the range of colors you can produce.

Or perhaps you suffered an injury, and in order to prevent re-injury, have decided to adopt a more biomechanically sound method of playing.

The problem, of course, is that our current ways of playing are well-learned, and deeply internalized. And like trying to train a kid to stop biting their nails, behavior change isn’t the easiest thing in the world.

There’s also the fact that while our current ways may not feel 100% comfortable, or be 100% reliable, to a certain extent they’re proven. In the sense that they’ve gotten us to where we are now. Because what happens if in trying to revamp our technique, we actually make things worse, and can’t figure out how to get back to where we started?

The Five-A model

These are the sorts of questions that a pair of British researchers wondered about as well. They observed that most of the research in motor learning focuses on learning new skills and doesn’t get into what elite performers should do to refine or modify skills that are already well-learned. But based on the relevant research findings that do exist, they put together a 5-stage model of change. Named the “Five-A Model,” it is a framework for understanding how best to refine skills in performers whose technique is already highly automatized.

Stage 1: Analysis

The first, and perhaps most important step in the process, is to ask whether a substantive change to technique is really necessary.

Is the inconsistency of our sound under pressure due to some funky bow arm technique? Or simply because we haven’t figured out how to deal more effectively with nerves? Maybe both?

Is our thumb injury due to the questionable mechanics of our playing? Or because we didn’t warm up properly? Or played way too much when we shouldn’t have?

Whether it’s a small tweak to our chinrest setup, or a total retooling of our technique, making changes like this is no small thing. It’s important to look at the pros and cons, and have a pretty clear idea what exactly it is that we’re striving to change before we start messing around with things all willy nilly.

Timing is another important factor. Let’s say you have an important competition coming up in a month. You may be chomping at the bit to make a change, but is now the best time to start tinkering under the hood?

Stage 2: Awareness

One of the great things about having done something for a long time is that we don’t have to think about the details. Complex skills can operate automatically, out of conscious awareness, at an extremely high level. You don’t have to think about what your thumb does when you shift to 5th position any more than you think about what your mouth is doing when you eat a quesadilla. You just do it.

But we can’t change something we don’t know is happening, so the first step is to make the unconscious process conscious again. For instance, if your thumb is part of the reason why your intonation is sketchy, you have to start paying attention to what your thumb is currently doing, slow things down perhaps, and start consciously controlling your thumb so that it does the correct thing when you shift.

Interestingly, the new way of doing things may not feel a whole lot different than the old way at first. So “contrasting” is a process that can help heighten our awareness of the differences between the old and new ways. Essentially this involves performing a skill the old, comfortable, “incorrect” way, and then doing it the new, less-comfortable, but more correct way, back-to-back. Old way, new way, old way, new way, and so on. Sort of like trying out new instruments. Played apart from each other, both might sound pretty similar, but played in the same sitting, back to back, their differences become much clearer.

Stage 3: Adjustment

If Stage 2 was about making the unconscious conscious, and developing some level of comfort with the new way of doing things, Stage 3 is about flipping things. In other words, internalizing the new way, and being able to execute with greater accuracy and consistency. To the point where the old way starts feeling awkward and the new way feels more comfortable.

Contrasting can help here too – except with a greater proportion of reps devoted to the new way, and fewer to the old way.

Stage 4: Re-automation

So by Stage 4, we’re feeling pretty good about the new way. But, wait! We’re not done yet!

This is kind of a precarious stage, because the new way is comfortable, but isn’t really “pressure-proofed” yet. Under pressure, we’re liable to default back to our old technique. Or, we might be tempted to think too much about specific technical elements instead of executing the whole movement in a holistic way.

For instance, I remember changing my entire setup one summer (going from a big chunky shoulder rest to no shoulder rest), which involved changing the mechanics of how I shifted and supported the violin with my hand and fingers. In the practice room, it was fine to pay a lot of attention to my thumb, or my hand shape, or elbow, or one single part of the skill, but if I did that in a performance, things would fall apart pretty quickly. To play at the highest level, my body had to act as one unit – my neck, shoulders, arms, fingers, and posture all working together in concert (ha!).

So how do we make our new technique more resistant to pressure?

Working on the rhythmicity of the skill seems to help. And cue words, like smooth, easy, fluid, light, oily, etc. can help us remember the overall feel of a complex movement, and facilitate a focus on the big picture, rather than getting sucked into the minutiae of the hundreds of little things our muscles have to do. Sort of like an impressionist painting. Where the important thing is to focus on the whole of the picture. Not get lost in the individual little dots.

Stage 5: Assurance

The last stage is about building confidence and trust in our new approach. Where we practice letting go of conscious control, and prove to ourselves that our new technique has been so deeply ingrained that it works on autopilot (or reveal that it doesn’t quite yet). Where we ensure that there is no temptation to regress to our old way, and everything works flawlessly not just in the practice room, but in performance-like situations as well.

This is where simulated performances, mock auditions, and low-stakes (but high-pressure) performances like studio class or playing for colleagues can give us a sense of whether we’re truly good to go, or if there is still more work to be done.


Clearly, this process is not a quick fix. But then again, maybe that’s a good thing. After all, as Beverly Sills once said, “There are no shortcuts to any place worth going.”

Update: For an expanded how-to guide of these steps by the original authors, click here.

Ack! After Countless Hours of Practice...
Why Are Performances Still So Hit or Miss?

For most of my life, I assumed that it was because I wasn’t practicing enough. And that eventually, if I performed enough, the nerves would just go away and everything would take care of itself.

But in the same way that “practice, practice, practice” wasn’t the answer, “perform, perform, perform” wasn’t the answer either. In fact, simply performing more, without the tools to facilitate more positive performance experiences, just led to more negative performance experiences!

Eventually, I discovered that elite athletes are successful in shrinking this gap between practice and performance, because their training looks fundamentally different. In that it includes specialized mental and physical practice strategies that are oriented around the retrieval of skills under pressure.

It was a very different approach to practice, that not only made performing a more positive experience, but practicing a more enjoyable experience too (which I certainly didn’t expect!).

If you’ve been wanting to perform more consistently and get more out of your daily practice, I’d love to share these research-based skills and strategies that can help you beat nerves and play more like yourself when it counts.

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8 Responses

  1. Even as a voice actor, I find this very relevant. One of the most recent things I had to adjust was my character development for auditions. What got me to where I am was fine, but the process wasn’t deep and intricate enough to stay competitive. And it’s a struggle, especially when you think you’ve got a better way to do things, yet under pressure you revert back to old patterns thinking “yeah, this’ll get me there.”

  2. This is especially relevant to those of us recovering from focal dystonia. The first step is “unlearning”, maybe the most difficult process one will ever go through as a musician, followed by retraining, where it is absolutely key to not going back to the old ways. Of course, it’s enitely possible that by following this type of a plan early enough, one will never get focal dystonia. Good artiocle!

  3. Another entry, essentially like all of your newsletters, is a worthy read. Thanks, helpful stuff here!

  4. So here’s the obvious question: how long does this process take? It’ll likely depend on the complexity of the skill and the degree to which it’s made automatic, but what is the range? This seems important for long-term planning.

  5. It was a nice coincidence to receive this helpful article just at a time when I’ve begun exploring a fork in the road in my Argentine tango technique. I’m not sure I like the new technique (Adjustment, re-Automation needed) or that it suits my rhythmicity (Analysis, Awareness needed first). But I do feel that at the least it is helping to inform and refine my current technique. Your article has given me touch points to get the most out of the exploration. Thank you!

  6. This is so relevant for singers of all levels! Unlike other instruments, even beginning singers have a great deal of experience using their instrument for speech and singing, so the issues of unlearning and relearning are very important. I already use many of these ideas in my studio, but it is great to see them put so succinctly. I especially like the point of the new technique being often uncomfortable–change is hard! I will be sharing this article with all of my students.

  7. Great to hear that our Five-A Model is providing some useful tips and transfers across performance domains! Always happy to assist 🙂

    My colleague (Dave Collins) and I have also recently published an article to expand on these stages, with key implications for psychological interventions involved. The best news is that it’s abslolutely FREE to download from the following website:

    Again, it’s focused within sport but clear similarities across many different performance contexts.

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