“Mistake Rituals” and Why it’s Important to Prepare for On-Stage Surprises

Most of us are creatures of habit, in at least some area of our lives.

Maybe we tend to gravitate towards the same section of the parking lot at the grocery store. Or still eat the same kind of jam we grew accustomed to as kids. Or consistently sit in the same row and section of the movie theater (although, sometimes we may have good reasons for doing what we do – ala Sheldon ).

There’s nothing wrong with a little bit of predictability, of course. Whether it’s having a consistent warmup routine, or setting up an area of the house devoted just to practicing, it’s nice not to have to reinvent the wheel every day.

But there are times when a dose of unpredictability is exactly what we need. Especially when it comes to learning skills that must be executed in the messiness of the real world.

How so?

Up, up, and away!

A team of researchers in the Netherlands recruited twenty airline pilots to study the effect of surprises on flight performance.

All participants were employed as pilots and had flown at some point in the previous week. Their level of experience varied, but on average, they had 12.4 years of flight experience and 6986 hours of flying time.

Recovering from a stall

After receiving a briefing on what to expect, each pilot participated in a 20-minute training session on a flight simulator, in which they practiced recovering from stalls (here’s a quick primer on stalls, if you’re wondering what that is) in eight different scenarios (i.e. different altitudes, angles, speeds).

After ensuring they were able to successfully recover from stalls using the FAA’s recommended stall recovery procedure, the pilots then participated in a second 20-minute flying session.

They were told to expect that something would happen 3 minutes after crossing a specific landmark, causing the plane to stall.

And for half of the pilots, this is exactly what happened (the anticipation group). But for the others, the stall happened unexpectedly, 5 seconds before even reaching the landmark (the surprise group)1.

How did they perform when surprised?

Given that these were experienced pilots who fly for a living, the researchers were curious to see how much of an impact (if any) the unexpectedness of the stall would have on the execution of the recommended recovery procedures.

So how’d they do?

Well, while all of the pilots recovered from the stall successfully, and nothing catastrophic occurred, there was a significant drop in performance when the pilots were surprised.

Their response time was slower, they lost more altitude before recovering, and most importantly, the majority of pilots failed to perform the recovery protocol as accurately as they did when the stall occurred at the expected time.

As lead author Annemarie Landman later explained, “…being skillful when you are not surprised and being skillful when you are surprised are two very different things.”2

So what lessons might we be able to take from this study and apply to audition or performance preparation?


1. Plan for the inevitable mistake (or two)

I never gave any thought to what I’d do if I had a memory slip. Or how I’d refocus my attention after missing a big run. Or how I’d slow things down if I found myself starting to rush uncontrollably.

Why not? Well, on some level, I think I was afraid of jinxing myself. That acknowledging the possibility of mistakes might make them more likely to happen.

But actually, learning how to respond to mistakes in the moment is an essential skill. A big part of which involves learning how to ignore mistakes (what?!), as former NFL quarterback Oliver Luck explains here: Teaching kids to flush mistakes

2. Develop a “mistake ritual”

Many athletes develop a “mistake ritual” to help them rebound more effectively from bad plays or poor shots. A way of moving past the mistake and getting back into a better head space. Because as tempting as it is to dwell on what just happened, the time to do that is after the performance, not during.

So what does a mistake ritual actually entail? Here are some tips from former NCAA tennis coach Kathy Toon: Bounce Back from Mistakes with “The Flush”

3. Practice using your mistake ritual (when you’re least expecting to need it)

Mock performances or auditions are perfect opportunities to practice cruising right past surprises or mistakes. Whether it’s a playing-related mistake, or something environmental (like the room being much warmer or colder than expected, or having to wait longer than expected).

And if you really want to make things more interesting, consider asking your pianist to surprise you with unexpected tempo changes or a sudden lack of responsiveness, when you’re not expecting it. Like in some rehearsals, but not others. Or (with your teacher’s permission) in a lesson. Or…maybe even in a studio class???


  1. To ensure a fair comparison between groups, the pilots subsequently experienced a second stall, the anticipation group then encountering a surprise stall, and the surprise group then encountering a stall exactly when they were told to expect one.
  2. Source: Study of airline pilots highlights the danger of relying on predictable scenarios for training

Ack! After Countless Hours of Practice...
Why Are Performances Still So Hit or Miss?

For most of my life, I assumed that I wasn’t practicing enough. And that eventually, with time and performance experience, the nerves would just go away.

But in the same way that “practice, practice, practice” wasn’t the answer, “perform, perform, perform” wasn’t the answer either. In fact, simply performing more, without the tools to facilitate more positive performance experiences, just led to more negative performance experiences!

Eventually, I discovered that elite athletes are successful in shrinking this gap between practice and performance, because their training looks fundamentally different. In that it includes specialized mental and physical practice strategies that are oriented around the retrieval of skills under pressure.

It was a very different approach to practice, that not only made performing a more positive experience, but practicing a more enjoyable experience too (which I certainly didn’t expect!).

If you’ve been wanting to perform more consistently and get more out of your daily practice, I’d love to share these research-based skills and strategies that can help you beat nerves and play more like yourself when it counts.

Click below to learn more about Beyond Practicing, and start enjoying more satisfying practice days that also transfer to the stage.


2 Responses

  1. I have been making a video with my smartphone of my practice sessions more lately, just as much to observe my demeanor while playing, as my actual playing. The video does not lie — wow i grimace a lot. It’s pretty hilarious. So when i play the second time through with the video running, i am conscious of maintaining a pleasant looking face. It’s easy to go overboard the other way and have that hilarious fake smile. Excellent footage for a bloopers video.

  2. Great topic. Perhaps in another blog you could discuss specific strategies for dealing with specific categories of mistake, e.g.: wrong note, memory lapse, wrong chord, missed repeat, etc. Some of these might be different for soloists playing solo or with orchestra or piano accompaniment than they are for orchestra musicians. One strategy for soloists might be practicing recovery points to advance to in the event of some kinds of errors. These recovery points can be selected to disguise as much as possible the gap in the flow of the music. I’m not sure if seasoned pilots have anything comparable to recovery points.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You'll also receive other insider resources like the weekly newsletter and a special 6-day series on essential research-based practice strategies that will help you get more out of your daily practice and perform more optimally on stage. (You can unsubscribe anytime.)

Download a

PDF version

Enter your email below to download this article as a PDF

Click the link below to convert this article to a PDF and download to your device.

Download a

PDF version

All set!


The weekly newsletter!

Join 45,000+ musicians and get the latest research-based tips on how to level up in the practice room and on stage.



Discover your mental strengths and weaknesses

If performances have been frustratingly inconsistent, try the 4-min Mental Skills Audit. It won't tell you what Harry Potter character you are, but it will point you in the direction of some new practice methods that could help you level up in the practice room and on stage.