How to Eliminate Memory Slips

Having a memory slip in the middle of a performance is probably one of the more embarrassing things that can happen to a musician. For many performers, it is the single most anxiety-producing aspect of live performances. Yet even the best are not immune to memory issues – even major concert artists have been known to make memory slips from time to time.

I’ve had my share of memory slips of course, from the slightly embarrassing variety (blanking out in a small informal concert) to the truly mortifying (getting lost in an unaccompanied Bach piece in the second round of an international competition). Yet, when I was a student, I never learned how to memorize music. Or more specifically, I never developed a trustworthy system for memorizing music.

Good “remember-ers” tend to recognize that their memory is not infallible, and not only use memory strategies, but know which ones work for them and which ones don’t. Poor remember-ers tend to assume (or hope) that they won’t forget, and don’t make explicit use of any particular strategies. I have to admit, I was in this second group for most of my life.

Entire books have been written on memory, and psychologists and neuroscientists are making new discoveries about learning and memory all the time. Though much of it is actually quite fascinating, a discussion of the nuts and bolts of memory is beyond the scope of this post. For now, I will just go directly to the good stuff – four key memory strategies (and their implications for musicians), that will become indispensible in your attempts to develop a more “bulletproof” memory.

Without further ado, here they are.

Strategy #1: Rehearsal

This is an obvious one, perhaps, but repetition and practice do increase the strength with which the music is encoded into our memory. However, what many of us do might be better described as mindless repetition, or merely playing something over and over without really thinking about what we are doing — just hoping that muscle memory alone will take care of business on-stage.

The goal here is to a) vary the different ways in which we practice and encode the music into our memory and b) force ourselves to recall the information we need via different methods.

For instance:

  • See if you can hum or solfege the entire piece without referring to the score.
  • See if you can “play” the piece on your instrument — without making a sound.
  • See if you can visualize the score in your head and mentally “play” the piece through from beginning to end.
  • See if you can mentally “hear” yourself play the piece through from beginning to end.
  • Try closing your eyes and trying to mentally rehearse the piece from beginning to end, “feeling” yourself play the piece on your instrument, “hearing” the desired sounds being produced, and perhaps even “seeing” the notes pass by on the score. Can you get through the piece without a hitch?

Great! On to the next strategy!

Strategy #2: Organization

Organization refers to arranging the material to be learned into groups, subgroups, and hierarchies of subgroups.

In other words, take a look at the musical structure of the piece? How does your part fit with the other instrument(s) involved? What are the actual note values, the dynamics, the tempo markings, etc.?

Ready for a challenge? Sit down with some empty staff paper and write out by hand, the entire piece from memory.

Got it? Next!

Strategy #3: Elaboration

Elaboration means going above and beyond mere repetition and rote learning, by working to assign meaning to the material.

This means to make the piece more than just a collection of notes and sounds, but to give it more life by identifying mental images, scenes, stories, dialogue, faces, personalities, characteristics, emotions, and so on, that can be linked to the notes, gestures, phrases, sections, and movements that make up a piece of music.

The more vivid and specific these elements are, and the clearer you are about how to produce these through your music, the more strongly the music will be etched into your brain and the more likely it is that you will be able to convey your ideas to an audience to begin with.

When I was a child, my mother and I would sit down with a new piece, and work our way through the score, literally creating visual images to go along with different phrases and sections of the piece and using colored pencils to draw/color these into the actual music itself. My old scores look like coloring books. Does it seem like something only kids would do? Maybe, but I never had any memory issues until I “outgrew” this strategy and stopped doing it.

Create a vivid set of scenes, characters, etc. for each of the sections and phrases of the piece. Draw them on paper if you’d like, and be very clear in your own mind about what you see.

Strategy #4: Method of Loci

I’ve seen this strategy referred to by other terms (e.g. “memory castle”), but the method of loci strategy is where one links new material with the elements of a familiar routine or location, such as one’s daily commute, or one’s hometown, or current residence.

Malcolm Lowe once noted that he conceptualized each piece as a journey or trip, imagining the beginning of a piece as the starting point (e.g. perhaps walking out the door of his house), and then tracing a route through the piece to the end along an imaginary path (for instance, stopping by a park, sitting on a park bench, feeding the birds, seeing a mime put on a show, walking through a grove of trees, getting splashed by the fountains, watching some kids play catch, grabbing a hot dog, meeting up with a friend, reminiscing on good times together, walking back home, etc.).

Do you have your piece “mapped” out?

If you have gone through all four of these strategies, and applied each of them in earnest, you will reach the point where you can’t get the music out of your head even if you wanted to.

But this all sounds like an awful lot of work…

Is it a bit much? Well, yes perhaps, but how much fun is mindless repetition?

Ack! After Countless Hours of Practice...
Why Are Performances Still So Hit or Miss?

For most of my life, I assumed that I wasn’t practicing enough. And that eventually, with time and performance experience, the nerves would just go away.

But in the same way that “practice, practice, practice” wasn’t the answer, “perform, perform, perform” wasn’t the answer either. In fact, simply performing more, without the tools to facilitate more positive performance experiences, just led to more negative performance experiences!

Eventually, I discovered that elite athletes are successful in shrinking this gap between practice and performance, because their training looks fundamentally different. In that it includes specialized mental and physical practice strategies that are oriented around the retrieval of skills under pressure.

It was a very different approach to practice, that not only made performing a more positive experience, but practicing a more enjoyable experience too (which I certainly didn’t expect!).

If you’ve been wanting to perform more consistently and get more out of your daily practice, I’d love to share these research-based skills and strategies that can help you beat nerves and play more like yourself when it counts.

Click below to learn more about Beyond Practicing, and start enjoying more satisfying practice days that also transfer to the stage.


12 Responses

  1. When you say “Sit down with some empty staff paper and write out by hand, the entire piece from memory” do you mean the part that you personally are playing, a full detailed score that the entire ensemble could play off of instead of their printed music, your own part in full plus a rough outline of the rest of the piece (rhythms, prominent lines, etcetera…) or some other combination of parts? (Or does it differ depending on the piece?)

    1. Hi Kate,

      You could certainly write out the whole score, but just your part, plus a rough outline of the rest (if you’re feeling particularly ambitious) should be plenty. Unless, of course, you’re a conductor and might benefit from an even deeper understanding of how everything ties together. Of course, depending on the complexity of the piece, the number of other instruments, etc., things could change.

      I suppose what I’m getting at is that you will have to gauge the amount of time you have available to devote to this, given there are undoubtedly many other things that will require attention in addition to memory. Do as much as you need to really internalize and solidify the memory of the piece, then move on to other things.

  2. A technique I use for memorizing is to memorize the piece backwards. We usually learn pieces from the beginning so memorizing backwards puts a) another perspective on the piece and b) you always play to the end.

  3. I believe Yo-Yo Ma’s father made him write out his Bach Suites by hand from a very early age.

    And I love the concept from Malcolm Lowe. Not sure if it will work, but will present this idea to a very capable 10 year old student who has memory issues.

    Thank you for this wonderful blog.

  4. I tend to memorize everything to avoid my lesser favorite thing, which is sight-reading. I think I use some of the strategies discussed above, although one I definitely have never even thought about trying is re-writing/re-drawing the score, I really like this idea, thank you. I think what I mostly do relies on the sort of visual sound-forms the configurations of piano keys/pitches take on when I am practicing. They’re sort of abstract, abbreviated outlines. Almost like polygons, except not entirely closed forms. Thank you for sharing Dr Kageyama and thank you for the link to your paper Arvid.

  5. Dr. Kageyama, I’m interested in learning more about your mom’s method of “coloring” the score. Would you mind elaborating a bit? My young son was devastated when he had a memory lapse at one of his violin recital, in fact at a spot where he normally would not during rehearsal/practices (although, of course, everyone in the audience were utterly supportive, still I can’t dismiss that it was not a big deal for him). Thanks for your thought in advance!

    1. Hi Claire,

      This is probably one of those times where a picture would be worth 1000 words, but unfortunately I don’t have any pictures of these old scores offhand! Essentially, my mom would just draw small pictures as I described the scene or story that I thought matched up with each section. So if I was describing a canoe ride with my cat, she’d draw a picture of the canoe going downstream with me and my cat paddling inside, and so on as we went through the piece. I think the important part was having a narrative or scenes matching up with each section, though I suspect the drawings helped as well.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


The weekly newsletter!

Join 45,000+ musicians and get the latest research-based tips on how to level up in the practice room and on stage.



Discover your mental strengths and weaknesses

If performances have been frustratingly inconsistent, try the 4-min Mental Skills Audit. It won't tell you what Harry Potter character you are, but it will point you in the direction of some new practice methods that could help you level up in the practice room and on stage.

You'll also receive other insider resources like the weekly newsletter and a special 6-day series on essential research-based practice strategies that will help you get more out of your daily practice and perform more optimally on stage. (You can unsubscribe anytime.)

Download a

PDF version

Enter your email below to download this article as a PDF

Click the link below to convert this article to a PDF and download to your device.

Download a

PDF version

All set!